Which DNA Virus Causes Viral Hepatitis?

Joel E Lavine MD

Joel Lavine

Viral hepatitis, a significant health concern globally, is caused by several types of viruses. Among these, a DNA virus known as Hepatitis B (HBV) is a prominent causative agent. This article delves into the intricacies of Hepatitis B, exploring its transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Understanding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by HBV. It’s a member of the Hepadnaviridae family, characterized by its DNA-based genome. This virus is highly contagious and can lead to both acute and chronic liver diseases.


HBV spreads through contact with infected bodily fluids. Common transmission routes include:

Mother-to-child transmission during childbirth
Sharing needles or syringes
Unprotected sexual contact with an infected person
Blood transfusions and organ transplants (less common due to rigorous screening)

Symptoms and Progression

The symptoms of Hepatitis B can vary. Acute infections may be asymptomatic or cause mild symptoms that are often overlooked. When symptoms do appear, they may include jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and joint pain.

Chronic HBV infections can lead to more severe complications like cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. It’s estimated that 15-25% of individuals with chronic Hepatitis B eventually develop these severe conditions.

Diagnosis and Screening

Early detection of HBV is crucial for effective management. Diagnostic tests include:

Blood Tests: These detect the presence of HBV antigens and antibodies to ascertain infection status.
Liver Function Tests: To assess the health of the liver.
Imaging Tests: Ultrasounds or CT scans may be used for a detailed view of liver health.
Regular screening is recommended for high-risk groups, including people from endemic areas, healthcare workers, and those with multiple sexual partners.

Treatment and Management

While there is no complete cure for HBV, treatments can significantly reduce the risk of liver disease and prevent transmission. Treatment options include:

Antiviral Medications: These drugs, like tenofovir and entecavir, help fight the virus and slow liver damage.
Interferon Injections: This is another form of treatment, particularly for young people who want to avoid long-term medication.
Patients with HBV need to undergo regular medical evaluations to monitor their liver health and the effectiveness of the treatment.

Prevention Strategies

Prevention is pivotal in controlling Hepatitis B. Key strategies include:

Vaccination: The most effective way to prevent HBV. The Hepatitis B vaccine is safe and recommended for infants, children, and high-risk adults.
Safe Practices: Using condoms during sex, avoiding sharing needles, and practicing safe blood transfusion methods.
Mother-to-Child Transmission Prevention: Pregnant women should be screened for HBV, and newborns of HBV-positive mothers should receive the vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) immediately after birth.

Public Health Implications

The global burden of Hepatitis B is significant, with over 250 million people living with chronic infections. It’s a major cause of liver cancer, making it a public health priority. Efforts are ongoing worldwide to increase vaccination coverage, improve screening and diagnostic facilities, and provide better access to treatment for those infected.

Hepatitis B, caused by the DNA virus HBV, remains a significant health challenge worldwide. Understanding its transmission, symptoms, and prevention methods is crucial. With effective vaccines and treatments available, combined efforts from individuals, healthcare providers, and public health organizations are essential to control and eventually eliminate this infectious disease.

Additional Information